Author guidelines

Asian Journal of African StudiesAJAS

Guidelines for Manuscript Writing

  1. Authors are requested to provide an abstract summarizing the aim, result and conclusion of the article within 150-250 words together with 5 to 8 keywords. Submitted manuscript must not exceed 11,000 words including the abstract, notes and references, but excluding tables.
  2. Articles should be formatted for an A4-sized paper in MS Word. All pages (including those containing only diagrams and tables) should be numbered consecutively.
  3. The title page should include the author’s name, current position, postal address, telephone number, e-mail address, description of scholarly backgrounds and research interests.
  4. Include the name(s) of any sponsor(s) of the research contained in the paper, along with grant number(s).
  5. Manuscripts submitted for publication should be e-mailed to:
  6. All manuscripts submitted will be reviewed by the editorial board before publication.
  7. References should be cited in the text according to the APA reference system, that is, use the last name of the author(s), the date of publication and, following quoted material, the page references. Also note:
  8. Ibid. (and the like) are not used when repeating citations. Simply repeat the original citation verbatim, e.g. (Orwell 1945).
  9. Multiple citations within parentheses should be divided by a semi-colon, and there should be no use of ‘&’ within such multiple references. References to works published in the same year should be cited as, e.g. (Smith 1991a, b).
  10. Multiple citations within text should be ordered by date, not alphabetically by author’s name, e.g. (Smith 1902; Jones and Bower 1934; Brown 1955, 1958a, b; Green 1995).
  11. et al. may be used in citations within the text when a paper or book has three or more authors, but note that all names are given in the reference itself. In et al.etshould not be followed by a period.
  12. Page spans in references should be given in full, e.g. Sedgewick (1935: 102-103).

The reference list should include every work cited in the text. It should be ensured that dates, spelling and title used in the text are consistent with those listed in the References. In addition, page numbers are required for articles, both place of publication and publisher are required for books cited and, where relevant, translator and date of first publication should be included. It should be noted that et al. should not be used in the reference list; rather each author’s full name or surname and initials need to be spell out.  Please refer to the following APA-style in-text citations and reference list.

Citing an Author or Authors

A Work by Two Authors:

Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports…

(Wegener & Petty, 1994)

A Work by more than Three Authors:

Harris et al. (2001) argued…

(Harris et al., 2001)

Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses.

Organization as an Author:

According to the American Psychological Association (2000),…

First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2000)

Second citation: (MADD, 2000)

Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses:

order them alphabetically, separated by a semi-colon

(Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983)

Authors with the Same Last Name:

(E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 1998)

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year:

Research by Berndt (1981a) illustrated that…

Personal Communication:

For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator’s name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list.

(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).

  1. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).

Citing Indirect Sources

Johnson argued that…(as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).

Electronic Sources

Kenneth (2000) explained…

Unknown Author and Unknown Date:  use the abbreviation “n.d.” (for “no date”)

Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring (“Tutoring and APA,” n.d.).

Sources without Page Numbers

According to Smith (1997), … (Mind over Matter section, para. 6).


Reference List: Author/Authors

Single Author

Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10.

Two Authors

Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 1034-1048.

More than Three Authors

Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Harlow, T., & Bach, J. S. (1993). There’s more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204.

Organization as Author

American Psychological Association. (2003).

Unknown Author

Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.).(1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

Two or More Works by the Same Author

Berndt, T. J. (1999). Friends’ influence on students’ adjustment to school. Educational Psychologist, 34, 15-28.

Berndt, T. J., & Keefe, K. (1995). Friends’ influence on adolescents’ adjustment to school. Child Development, 66, 1312-1329.

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year

Berndt, T. J. (1981a). Age changes and changes over time in prosocial intentions and behavior between friends. Developmental Psychology, 17, 408-416.

Berndt, T. J. (1981b). Effects of friendship on prosocial intentions and behavior. Child Development, 52, 636-643.

Reference List: Articles in Periodicals

Article in Journal Paginated by Volume

Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.

Article in Journal Paginated by Issue

Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(3), 5-13.

Article in a Magazine

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today’s schools. Time, 135, 28-31.

Article in a Newspaper

Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A.


Baumeister, R. F. (1993). Exposing the self-knowledge myth [Review of the book The self-knower: A hero under control, by R. A. Wicklund & M. Eckert].Contemporary Psychology, 38, 466-467.

Reference List: Books

Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Edited Book, No Author

Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

Edited Book with an Author or Authors

Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals. K. V. Kukil (Ed.). New York, NY: Anchor.

A Translation

Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities. (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1814)

Article or Chapter in an Edited Book

O’Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men’s and women’s gender role journeys: A metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer.

Reference List: Other Print Sources

An Entry in an Encyclopedia

Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The New Encyclopedia  Britannica. (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Work Discussed in a Secondary Source

Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100, 589-608.

Dissertation Abstract

Yoshida, Y. (2001). Essays in urban transportation. Dissertation Abstracts International, 62, 7741A.

Dissertation, Published

Lastname, F. N. (Year). Title of dissertation (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order Number)

Dissertation, Unpublished

Lastname, F. N. (Year). Title of dissertation (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Name of Institution, Location.

Government Document

National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness(DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Report from a Private Organization

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with eating disorders (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Conference Proceedings

Schnase, J. L., & Cunnius, E. L. (Eds.). (1995). Proceedings from CSCL ’95: The First International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Reference List: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)

Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149. Retrieved from

Article from an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned

Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography.European Journal of Marketing, 41, 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161

Wooldridge, M.B., & Shapka, J. (2012). Playing with technology: Mother-toddler interaction scores lower during play with electronic toys. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 33(5), 211-218.

Article from an Online Periodical with no DOI Assigned

Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8. Retrieved from

Article from a Database

Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002). A study of enjoyment of peas.Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8(3), 120-125. Retrieved from http://www.articlehomepage.‌com/full/url/


Paterson, P. (2008). How well do young offenders with Asperger Syndrome cope in custody?: Two prison case studies [Abstract]. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(1), 54-58.

Hendricks, J., Applebaum, R., & Kunkel, S. (2010). A world apart? Bridging the gap between theory and applied social gerontology. Gerontologist, 50(3), 284-293. Abstract retrieved from Abstracts in Social Gerontology database. (Accession No. 50360869)

Newspaper Article

Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Electronic Books

De Huff, E. W. (n.d.). Taytay’s tales: Traditional Pueblo  Indian tales. Retrieved from

Davis, J. (n.d.). Familiar birdsongs of the Northwest.  Available from inkey=1-9780931686108-0

Chapter/Section of a Web Document or Online Book Chapter

Engelshcall, R. S. (1997). Module mod_rewrite: URL Rewriting Engine. In Apache HTTP Server version 1.3 documentation (Apache modules). Retrieved from

Peckinpaugh, J. (2003). Change in the Nineties. In J. S. Bough and G. B. DuBois (Eds.), A century of growth in America. Retrieved from GoldStar database.

Online Book Reviews

Zacharek, S. (2008, April 27). Natural women [Review of the book Girls like us]. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Castle, G. (2007). New millennial Joyce [Review of the books Twenty-first Joyce, Joyce’s critics: Transitions in reading and culture, and Joyce’s messianism: Dante, negative existence, and the messianic self]Modern Fiction Studies, 50(1), 163-173. Available from Project MUSE Web site:

Dissertation/Thesis from a Database

Biswas, S. (2008). Dopamine D3 receptor: A neuroprotective treatment target in Parkinson’s disease. Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (AAT 3295214)

Online Encyclopedias and Dictionaries

Feminism. (n.d.). In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved from

Online Bibliographies and Annotated Bibliographies

Jürgens, R. (2005). HIV/AIDS and HCV in Prisons: A Select Annotated Bibliography. Retrieved from

Data Sets

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2008). Indiana income limits [Data file]. Retrieved from

Graphic Data (e.g. Interactive Maps and Other Graphic Representations of Data)

Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment. (2007). [Graph illustration the SORCE Spectral Plot May 8, 2008]. Solar Spectral Data Access from the SIM, SOLSTICE, and XPS Instruments. Retrieved from spectra.ion

Qualitative Data and Online Interviews

Butler, C. (Interviewer) & Stevenson, R. (Interviewee). (1999). Oral History 2 [Interview transcript]. Retrieved from Johnson Space Center Oral Histories Project Web site: http://

Online Lecture Notes and Presentation Slides

Hallam, A. Duality in consumer theory [PDF document]. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site:

Roberts, K. F. (1998). Federal regulations of chemicals in the environment [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from

Nonperiodical Web Document or Report

Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderland, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved from

Online Forum or Discussion Board Posting

Frook, B. D. (1999, July 23). New inventions in the cyberworld of toylandia [Msg 25]. Message posted to

Blog (Weblog) and Video Blog Post

J Dean. (2008, May 7). When the self emerges: Is that me in the mirror? [Web log comment]. Retrieved from

Psychology Video Blog #3 [Video file]. Retrieved from


OLPC Peru/Arahuay. (n.d.). Retrieved April 29, 2011 from the OLPC Wiki: http://wiki.laptop. org/go/OLPC_Peru/Arahuay

Audio Podcast

Bell, T., & Phillips, T. (2008, May 6). A solar flare. Science @ NASA Podcast. Podcast retrieved from

Video Podcasts

Scott, D. (Producer). (2007, January 5). The community college classroom [Episode 7].Adventures in Education. Podcast retrieved from

Reference List: Other Non-Print Sources

Interviews, Email, and Other Personal Communication

(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).

Motion Picture

A Motion Picture or Video Tape with International or National Availability

Smith, J. D. (Producer), & Smithee, A. F. (Director). (2001). Really big disaster movie[Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.

A Motion Picture or Video Tape with Limited Availability

Harris, M. (Producer), & Turley, M. J. (Director). (2002). Writing labs: A history [Motion picture]. (Available from Purdue University Pictures, 500 Oval Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907)

Television Broadcast or Series Episode

Single Episode of a Television Series

Wendy, S. W. (Writer), & Martian, I. R. (Director). (1986). The rising angel and the falling ape [Television series episode]. In D. Dude (Producer), Creatures and monsters. Los Angeles, CA: Belarus Studios.

Television Broadcast

Important, I. M. (Producer). (1990, November 1). The nightly news hour [Television broadcast]. New York, NY: Central Broadcasting Service.

A Television Series

Bellisario, D. L. (Producer). (1992). Exciting action show [Television series]. Hollywood, CA: American Broadcasting Company.

Music Recording

Taupin, B. (1975). Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John]. On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy [CD]. London, England: Big Pig Music Limited.

For more about citing audiovisual media, see pages 209-210 of the APA Publication Manual 6th Edition, second printing.



Any further inquiries should be addressed to:

The editorial board of Asian Journal of African Studies (AJAS)

Institute of African Studies, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies

81, Oedae-ro, Mohyeon-myon, Cheoin-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, Korea (Postal Code 17035)

Global Leadership Academy, Research bld. #405

E-Mail: or

Tel: +82-31-330-4853; Fax: +82-31-330-4865


Last updated on February 15, 2016